The Reorganized ACI 14 Code. – Are You Ready? Neal S. Anderson, P.E., S.E.. Staff Consultant. Simpson Gumpertz & Heger, Chicago, Illinois. The American Concrete Institute (ACI) has pub- lished Building Code Requirements for Struc- tural Concrete (ACI ) and Commentary. /R ACI Building Code and Commentary. PREFACE. The code portion of this document covers the design and construction of structural concrete .
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Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete and Commentary
Google requests that the images and OCR not be re-hosted, redistributed or used commercially. The images are provided for educational, scholarly, non-commercial purposes. Tables cover a wide range of working stresses. Available soon, it will aid the design of structural members by ultimate strength methods compatible with the Building Code. Spiral bound to lie flat. Its 17 chapters cover properties, design data, design tables, and useful suggestions on construction.
Over photos and drawings. Charts cover a wide range of concrete and steel strengths. Each paper is indexed by title, author, and major subject classifications; about 18, entries. SYNOPSIS This code provides minimum requirements for the design and construction of reinforced concrete, or composite structural elements of any structure erected under the requirements of the general building code of which this code forms a part.
318–10 special structures, such as arches, tanks, reservoirs, grain elevators, shells, domes, blast-resistant structures, acii chimneys, the provisions of this code shall govern so far as they are applicable. This code is written in such a form that it may be incorporated verbatim or adopted 318-1 reference in a general building code, and earlier editions of it have been widely used in this manner.
BoxBedford Station, Detroit 19, Mich. Printed in the United States of America. These drawings, details, and specifications shall show the size and position of all structural elements and reinforcing steel; pro- vision for dimensional changes resulting from creep, shrinkage, and temperature; the specified strength of the concrete at stated ages; ac specified strength of the reinforcing steel; the magnitude and location of prestressing forces; and the live load used in the design.
This Board shall be composed of competent ac and shall have the authority to investigate the data so submitted, to require tests, and to formulate rules governing the design and construction of such sys- tems to meet the intent of this code. These rules when approved by the Building Official and promulgated shall be of the same force and effect as the provisions of this code. Prior to the application of the test load, a load which simu- lates the effect of that portion of the service dead load which is not already present shall be applied and shall remain in place until after a decision has been made regarding the acceptability of the structure.
The test load shall not be applied until the structural members to be tested have borne the full service dead load for at least 48 hr. The test load shall be applied without shock to the structure and in a manner to avoid arching of the loading materials.
The test load shall be removed and additional readings of deflections shall be taken 24 hr after the removal of the test load.
In determining the limiting deflection for a cantilever, I shall be taken as twice the distance from 318–10 support to the end, and the deflection shall be adjusted for movement of the support. Construction failing to show 75 percent recovery of the deflec- tion may be retested. The second test loading shall not be made until at least 72 hr after removal of the test load for the first test.
The structure shall show no evidence of failure in the retest, and the recovery of deflection caused by the second test load shall be at least 75 percent. Admixture—A material other than portland cement, aggregate, or water added to concrete to modify its properties.
Aggregate—Inert material which is mixed with portland cement and water to produce concrete. Building official—See Section c. Column—An upright compression member the length of which ex- ceeds three times its least lateral dimension.
Combination column—A column in which a structural steel member, designed to carry the principal part of the load, is encased in concrete of such quality and in such manner that 318-0 remaining load may be allowed thereon.
Composite column—A column in which a steel or ai structural member is completely encased in concrete containing spiral and longi- tudinal reinforcement. Composite concrete flexural construction—A precast concrete member and cast-in-place reinforced concrete so interconnected that the compo- nent elements act together as a flexural unit. Compressive strength shall be determined by tests of standard 6 x in.
Concrete—A mixture of portland cement, fine aggregate, coarse aggre- gate, and water. Concrete, structural lightweight — A concrete containing lightweight aggregate conforming to Section Welded wire fabric with welded intersections not farther apart than 12 in.
Effective area of concrete—The area of a section which lies between the centroid of the tension reinforcement and the compression face of the flexural member.
Effective area of reinforcement—The area obtained by multiplying the right cross-sectional area of the reinforcement by the cosine of the angle between its direction and the direction for which the effectiveness Generated for Mohamed Aly Abdel-razik Moustafa University of California, Berkeley on Pedestal—An qci compression member whose height does not exceed three times its average least lateral dimension. Plain bar—Reinforcement that does ac conform to the definition of deformed bar.
Plain concrete—Concrete that does not conform to the definition for reinforced concrete. Precast concrete—A plain or reinforced concrete element cast in other than its final position in the structure. Prestressed concrete—Reinforced concrete in which there have been introduced internal stresses of such magnitude and distribution that the stresses resulting from service loads are counteracted to a desired degree.
Reinforced concrete—Concrete containing reinforcement and designed on the assumption that the two materials act together in resisting forces. Reinforcement—Material that conforms to Sectionexcluding prestressing steel unless specifically included. Service dead load—The calculated dead weight supported by a member.
Service live load—The live load specified by the general building afi of which this code forms a 318-110.
Splitting tensile strength— see Section Stress—Intensity of force per unit area. Surface water—Water carried by an aggregate except that held by absorption within the aggregate particles themselves.
The complete records of such tests shall be available for inspection during the progress of the work and for two years thereafter, and shall be preserved by the engineer or archi- tect for that purpose. Mortar cubes made with nonpotable mixing water shall have 3188-10 and day strengths equal to at least 90 percent of the strengths of similar speci- mens made with potable water. If reinforcing bars are to be welded, these ASTM specifications shall be supplemented by requirements assuring satisfactory weldability in conformity with Aic D Wires used in making qci for post-tensioning shall be cold-drawn and either stress-relieved in the case of uncoated strands, or hot-dip gal- vanized in the case of galvanized strands.
After proof- stressing, the bars shall conform to the following minimum properties: Any material which has deteriorated or which has been damaged shall not be used for concrete.
318-08: Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete and Commentary
Elongation at rupture in 20 diameters Reduction of area at rupture. ACI standards and recommendations “Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete” are minimum standards of performance in legally enforceable phraseology. These results may be achieved through many equally satisfactory methods. Many detailed recommen- dations for acceptable practices are available in the following American Concrete Institute Standards and Recommendations: Method 2 — For combinations of materials previously qci or to be established by trial mixtures Generated for Mohamed Aly Abdel-razik Moustafa University of California, Berkeley on Where previous data are not available, concrete trial mixtures having proportions and consistency suitable for the work shall be made using at least three different water-cement ratios or cement content in the case of lightweight aggregates which will produce a range of strengths encompassing those required for the work.
The strength tests shall be made at 28 days or the earlier age at which the concrete is to sci load, as indicated on the plans. A curve shall be established showing the relationship between water-cement ratio or cement content and compressive strength.
The maximum permissible water-cement ratio for the concrete to be used in the struc- ture shall be that shown by the curve to produce an average strength to aaci the requirements of Section provided that the water-cement ratio shall be no greater than that required by Section c. Two speci- mens shall be made for each test at a given age, and not less than one Generated for Mohamed Aly Abdel-razik Moustafa University of California, Berkeley on 318-01 Building Official may require a reasonable number of additional tests during the progress of the work.
Specimens made to check the adequacy of the proportions for strength of concrete or as a basis for acceptance of concrete shall be made and laboratory-cured in accordance with “Method of Making and Curing Concrete Compression and Flexure Test Speci- mens in the Field” ASTM C Additional test specimens cured en- tirely under field 38-10 may be required by the Building Official to check the adequacy of curing and protection of the concrete.
Additional tests may be made at earlier ages to obtain ad- vance information on the adequacy of strength development where age-strength relationships have been established for the materials and proportions used.
For a similar degree of control, the reauirements of c 2 will be met by an average strength 25 percent greater than the specified strength. If the number of tests is small, there may be more than the indicated permissive percentage below the specified strength even though the average strength and the uniformity of the concrete are satisfactory.
If that occurs, the procedures of ACI should be emploved to determine if the average strength being sup- plied is adequately in excess of the specified strength. The strengths of any specimens cured on the job are intended to indicate the adequacy of protection and Generated for Mohamed Aly Abdel-razik Moustafa University of California, Berkeley on When, in the opinion of the Building Official, the strengths of 318-01 job- cured specimens are excessively below those of the laboratory-cured specimens, the contractor may be required to improve the procedures for protecting and curing the concrete.
Twenty-four 6 x in. After 7 days moist curing followed by 21 days drying at 73 F and 50 percent relative humidity, eight of the test cylinders at each of the two strength levels shall be tested for splitting strength and four for compressive strength. The concret- ing shall be carried on at such a rate that the concrete is at all times plastic and flows readily into the spaces between the bars.
The top surface shall be generally level. When construction joints are necessary, they shall be made in accordance with Section Effective vibration is commonly the most suitable means.
Other curing periods may be used if the specified strengths are obtained. All concrete materials and all reinforcement, forms, fillers, and ground 3318-10 which the concrete is to come in contact shall be free from frost. No frozen materials or materials containing ice shall be used. They shall be properly braced or tied together so as to maintain position and shape. Rate and method of placing concrete 318-01. Loads, including live, dead, lateral, and impact 3.
Selection of materials and stresses 4. Deflection, camber, eccentricity, and uplift 5.
Horizontal and diagonal shore bracing 6. Cross grain compression 8. Loads on ground or on ac structure — Removal of forms a No construction loads exceeding the structural design loads shall be supported upon any unshored portion of the structure under con- struction. No construction load shall be supported upon, nor any shoring removed from any part of the structure under construction until that portion of the structure has attained sufficient strength to support safely its weight and the loads placed thereon.
This strength may be demon- strated by job-cured test specimens and by a structural analysis con- sidering the proposed loads aic relation to these test strengths.