PDF | On Jan 1, , Samir Amr and others published Jabir ibn Hayyan. writer authoring books on philosophy, books. Jābir ibn Hayyan (also known by his Latinized name Geber, circa –) was a contemporary of the first Abbasids, who ruled circa – Find Jabir ibn Hayyan books online. Get the best Jabir ibn Hayyan books at our marketplace.

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New World Encyclopedia writers and editors rewrote and completed the Wikipedia article in accordance with New World Encyclopedia standards.

Jabir ibn Hayyan

Wikiquote has quotations related to: The history of earlier contributions by wikipedians is accessible to researchers here:. According to the philologist-historian Paul KrausJabir cleverly mixed in his alchemical writings unambiguous references to the Ismaili or Qarmati movement. Members of this tribe had settled at the town of Kufa, in Iraq, shortly after the Muhammadan conquest in the seventh century A. Holmyard expressed a dissenting opinion, in that he believed the question of whether the Latin works were by Jabir should be left open.

Le corpus des ecrits jabiriens.

Inthe historian Ahmad Y. According to Forbes, there is no proof that Jabir knew alcohol. Others say his teacher was another Jafar, the Barmecide vizier Jafar ibn Yahya, who was put to death inby the ruler Harun al-Rashid. This language of extracting the hidden nature formed an important lemma for the extensive corpus associated with the Persian alchemist Jabir ibn Hayyan as well.

Harbi al-Himyari Ja’far al-Sadiq.

Holmyard attempts to piece together a life of Jabir from a variety of early sources and a knowledge of the history of the times. But the general style of the works is too clear and systematic to find a close parallel in any of the known writings of the Jabirian corpus, and we look in vain in them for any references to the characteristically Jabirian ideas of “balance” and the alphabetic numerology.

Jabir professed to have drawn his alchemical inspiration from earlier writers, both legendary and historic, on the subject.


Jabir ibn Hayyan – New World Encyclopedia

Directions to make mineral acids such as sulfuric acidnitric acid and aqua regis appear in the Arabic Jabirian corpus, [41] and later in the pseudo-Geberian works Liber FornacumDe inventione perfectionisand the Summa. Jabir’s family fled to Arabiawhere Jabir studied under the scholar Harbi al-Himyari.

For example, lead was cold and dry and gold was hot and moist. The nature and properties of elements was defined through numeric values assigned the Arabic consonants present in their name, ultimately culminating in the number Fire was both hot and dry, earth cold and dry, water cold and moist, and air hot and moist.

He invented an additive which, when applied to an iron surface, inhibited rust and when jabor to a textile, would make it water repellent.

Whatever book origin, they became the principal authorities in early Western alchemy and held that position kbn two or three centuries. Jabir ibn Hayyan c. Rowe, North Atlantic Books, Others note stylistic differences between Jabir’s work in Arabic, and the Latin works of Geber.

A problem which historians of chemistry have not yet succeeded in solving is whether these works are genuine or not. What Jabir meant by these recipes is unknown.

The Three Books on Alchemy by Geber, the Great Philosopher and Alchemist – World Digital Library

He has been described as “the father of early chemistry”. The seeds of the modern classification of elements into metals and non-metals could be seen in his chemical nomenclature. To cite this article click here for a list of acceptable citing formats.

The question at once arises whether the Latin works are genuine translations from the Arabic, or written by a Latin author and, according to common practice, ascribed to Jabir in order to heighten their authority. Holmyard had abandoned the idea of an Arabic original. The Jabirian corpus is renowned for its contributions to alchemy. Al-Hassan pointed out that earlier Arabic texts prior to the 13th century, including the works of Jabir and Al-Razialready contained detailed descriptions of substances such as nitric acid, aqua regia, vitriol, and various nitrates.


Still, there are a minority who make a case for Jabir’s authorship of all the works attributed to him. As early as the 10th century, the identity and exact corpus of works of Jabir was in dispute in Islamic circles.

The authorship of some works, particularly those in Latin with no Arabic originals, habir disputed by modern scholars, many of whom claim that the chemical knowledge they display is far ahead of what was known to ninth-century practitioners. They differ from one another only because of the difference of their accidental qualities, and this difference is due to the difference of their sulphur, which again is caused by a variation in the soils haayyan in their positions with respect to the heat of the sun.

The Liber fornacumDe investigatione perfectionis and De inventione veritatis “are merely extracts from or summaries of the Summa Perfectionis Magisterii with later additions. Many ibj these works were translated and distributed throughout the learning centers of medieval Europe under the latinized form of Jabir’s name, Geber. History of “Jabir ibn Hayyan” Note: Their assertions are rejected by al-Nadim.

According to Jabir’s mercury-sulfur theorymetals differ from each in so far as they contain different proportions of the sulfur and mercury.

The Three Books on Alchemy by Geber, the Great Philosopher and Alchemist

Islam’s Contribution to Science. Geber seems to have been a client of the Azd tribe established in Kufa. Medicine in ivn medieval Islamic world. Jabir’s alchemical investigations were theoretically grounded in an elaborate numerology related to Pythagorean and Neoplatonic systems. By Jabir’s time Aristotelian physics had become Neoplatonic. And Esoteric sciences “.